Process in Operating System? | Process States | PCB

What is a Process ? ( Process in Operating System )

An executing program is known as a Process. A Process is executed sequentially one instruction at a time. A process is the smallest alone schedulable entity, consisting of code and data.


A Program is generally known as a set of instructions provided to execute a certain specified job. A computer program is generally written by a professional computer programmer in any of the Programming Languages (C, C++, Python, Java, etc.).

A simple program written in C Programming Languages for Addition looks like this :-

Different States of Processes are :-

  1. New – Process is being created in this State for execution.
  2. Ready – The Process is waiting for the CPU, to give instructions to proceed further.
  3. Running – Process starts execution after getting the instructions from the CPU.
  4. Waiting – Process waits for other required resources to complete execution(Input, Output, or Required files).
  5. Terminated – Once the process completes its execution or terminated for any reason it goes to terminated state and waits to be removed from the acquired memory.

Process Control Block (PCB)

The Operating System collects all information about a specific process in a data structure known as “Process Control Block” or “Process Descriptor“. Process Control Block is must be created whenever a new process is created for execution and be deleted when the process is terminated.

Following Information are stored in a PCB :-

  1. Process ID
  2. Process Priority
  3. Process State
  4. Hardware State
  5. I/O Information
  6. Scheduling Information
  7. Memory Related Information
  8. Various Pointers Information

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